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This colleague was John Prince, a multi-talented American linguist. John Dyneley Prince managed to combine a career as a professor of linguistics at Columbia University with a political and diplomatic career, which included the vice- governorship of New Jersey and ambassadorships to several European countries. Although he had specialised in Semitic and [] Slavonic, he had also been motivated to document two dying languages near his home: the Minsi Indian dialect, and the Low Dutch of Bergen and Passaic Counties. It is therefore not surprising then that Prince was able to converse in fluent Dutch with a later colleague of his at Columbia University, to wit the Dutchman Adriaan Barnouw 16 Carpenter was born in , viz.

We may therefore assume that Carpenter is describing his own observations and that he had actually witnessed conversations in nineteenth-century Mohawk Dutch. It provides the very first description of the variety that was actually spoken in New Jersey at that time. The younger generation has lost the language and few young people care to try to learn the idiom of their grandparents. Fifty years ago, however, this was the common vernacular over most of Bergen County and in many places in the adjoining county of Passaic Prince When preparing his article, Prince relied primarily on four main informants, all of whom were above the age of seventy years.

One of these informants was a Negro. A number of additional sentences are presented in other paper by Prince.

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Although these works constitute the most important corpus for the study of Low Dutch, it is relatively modest, at least according to modern standards. Moreover, Prince ventured to present a number of linguistic comparisons between Holland Dutch and Jersey Dutch, although the correctness of some of his conclusions could be debated.

Be that as it may, this study was very well received in the Dutch linguistic circles of its time. It prompted the Leiden professor D.

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Hesseling , a distinguished Dutch creolist and afrikanist, to ask his New York colleague for a more extensive Jersey Dutch text than the isolated phrases and sentences that could be found in the glossary. He was not content at home and therefore then he became poor, He thought about it at home and his father's place. Then said: I shall go home. My father has plenty. And when the father saw him coming, he went out and met him and kissed his son and then brought him into his house.

My son who was lost is now again at home. Now we shall have a good thankful time. Then the oldest son said: you did not so for me. I stayed home with you and you never made any supper for me and this one went away and wasted all his money.

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Now he comes back poor. Now you make a feast — a great supper — for him, which you never did for me. Then the father said: I am glad; I am thankful that my son still lives and is at home in health]. I would like to emphasize that, for a contemporary Dutch native speaker, living some years after Peter Stuyvesant, this specimen of Jersey Dutch is quite easy to follow at any rate, my students had no problems , and the same may be true of a seasoned Germanist as well. The text from the gospel of Luke was immediately published in a well-respected Dutch scholarly periodical, while in the same year Prince was tactically appointed as a foreign member of the prestigious Leiden Maatschappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde Dutch Society of Letters, founded in Prince had apparently promised to send more linguistic data to Leiden, including a specimen of a text in Negro Dutch.

It is definitely to be regretted that, at least to my knowledge, Prince never managed to dispatch any further transcripts of his Low Dutch conversations with elderly Jersey informants to his Dutch colleagues. Discussion For reasons that will become clear, I do not attempt to present a description of the grammar and the lexicon of Low Dutch contained in the publications by Prince. Did Low Dutch continue to change during the nineteenth century, and, if so, to what extent? Moreover, can the results of this process actually be found in the spoken corpus composed by Prince in and ?

On the one hand, because of the increasing influence of English, the trends indicated by Gehring could have been expected to manifest themselves at increased speed. Allow me to draw a brief comparison with another language descended from a form of colonial Dutch: Cape Dutch or Afrikaans.

Deumert Reinecke [ She continued: Although New Netherland Dutch shows clearly signs of morphological reduction, the process was never completed [ With regard to syntax Bachman 11 pointed out the following: This syntactical change was not usually accompanied by simplification and regularization of verb forms, as has occurred in Afrikaans. Compare Afrikaans ek het gekry, hy het gekry, with Mohawk Dutch ek hev gekrege, hy hee gekrege.

In this respect Low Dutch 18 Cf. Gold , Buccini Whereas Cape Dutch Afrikaans found its definitive shape only at the end of the nineteenth century cf. Prince relied primarily on four informants, who provided him with words and mostly short sentences. Can these data provide clear insight into the language changes taking place in Low Dutch from the end of the eighteenth century onwards? I should like to add that scholars disagree regarding the extent of English influence and its consequences. Although I cannot go into detail, the data provided by Prince demonstrate the difficulty of making any conclusive statements regarding phonetics and phonology cf.


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Shetter Several possible English influences can indeed be identified in the context of the morphology of the verbs. As stated by van Marle 95 , the field of syntax presents a clear case for the English influence. For example, Gehring found that written materials from the eighteenth century contained a number of sentences with an English word order.

What actually happened following the Great Dutch Language Schism of the eighteenth century? Concluding remarks For the interested reader, I should like to mention that the literature contains more additional Low Dutch sources other than those that I have been able to address explicitly in this paper, including the writings of the notorious American amateur linguist Dr.

Notebook by his grandfather, Walter Hill , who is said to have been a teacher in the Mohawk Valley. I have refrained from discussing these potential sources, as specialists are currently debating their linguistic value and their authenticity. I shall return to this matter on another occasion. As has become clear in this paper, further research into the vicissitudes of Low Dutch will demand that we have a much larger quantity of language data at our disposal. Fortunately, a major project is expected to commence soon at the Meertens Instituut in Amsterdam. Even with the help of an extensive digital corpus on Low Dutch, however, I am afraid we will never know.

References Bachman, Van Cleaf. Peltries or Plantations. Bachman, Van Cleaf. Introduction to Low Dutch Dictionary. Bartlett, John Russell. Dictionary of Americanisms. A glossary of words and phrases usually regarded as peculiar to the United States. Woordenboek van Americanismen: een lijst van woorden en zinnen, gewoonlijk als eigenaardig aan de Vereenigde Staten beschouwd. Vertaald door M. Gorinchem: J. Barnouw, Adriaan J. Monthly letters on the culture and history of The Netherlands. Assen: Van Gorcum etc. Bosch, G. Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen. Mengelwerk , Buccini, Anthony F.

Dutch Linguistics in a Changing Europe. The Berkeley Conference on Dutch Linguistics Lanham etc. Taal en tongval. Carpenter, W. Modern Philology 6, Cohen, David Steven. The Dutch-American Farm. De Jong, Gerald F. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. Deumert, Ana. Language Standardization and Language Change. Frederic, Harold. In the valley. Gehring, Charles. The Dutch language in colonial New York. An investigation of a language in decline and its relationship to social change.

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D thesis Indiana University. Handboek der Nederlandsche taal by Jac. I, Nijmegen: L. Gold, David S. See Rosenstein Hamlin, Huybertie Pruyn. An Albany girlhood. By Alice P. Harrison, Francis. The English and Low-Dutch school-master.

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Each entry marks the original arrival of its term into American English and adds up-to-date information on its evolving meaning, etymology, and regional spread. Not to be missed by anyone with a passion for the history behind our everyday expressions, Cookies, Coleslaw and Stoops is the perfect gift for the linguistic adventurer in us all. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information.

Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Surprisingly, the Dutch also gave several Native American languages words for everyday things like "pants," "cat" and "turkey. Specifications Publisher Amsterdam University Press.

Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. Please enter a valid email address. Walmart Services. Get to Know Us. Customer Service. In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. Poems, plays, children's books, maps, dialect maps, cartoons - Van der Sijs leaves no stone unturned in telling her tale. In the book she tells her story in three stages. After an introduction a good hundred pages long on the history of the Dutch language in North-America, she writes about the Dutch words that have made their mark on American English.

She has recorded that influence in a thematic glossary. The third and final part of the book deals with the influence of Dutch on the North-American Indian languages. Van der Sijs' approach has led to some fresh insights. As already stated, she is the first to provide a comprehensive survey of this subject, and that in itself is something new.

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But scraps of new information can also be found in the studies of individual words, which are always underpinned with references from the literature. Van der Sijs patiently traces the trail back. From the book A History of New York published by Washington Irving in under the pseudonym of Diedrich Knickerbocker, a book in which Dutch colonists were portrayed wearing knee-length trousers, via the history of the Knickerbocker family in the United States, to the assertion that the family name derives from an old occupation.

What is certain , however , is that knikkerbakker , howsoever spelled , exists in Dutch neither as the name of an occupation nor as a family name. The whole reconstruction occupies a good three pages, but for lovers of this genre it is a pleasure to read her persuasive reasoning.